# Level 1A: K2 年级 (5-7 岁)

# 计算机系统

Computing Systems

序号 标准和描述 相关概念 实践
1A-CS-01 Select and operate appropriate software to perform a variety of tasks, and recognize that users have different needs and preferences for the technology they use.
选择并使用合适的软件来执行各种任务, 并认识到使用者对所使用的技术有着不同的需求和偏好
People use computing devices to perform a variety of tasks accurately and quickly. Students should be able to select the appropriate app/program to use for tasks they are required to complete. For example, if students are asked to draw a picture, they should be able to open and use a drawing app/program to complete this task, or if they are asked to create a presentation, they should be able to open and use presentation software. In addition, with teacher guidance, students should compare and discuss preferences for software with the same primary functionality. Students could compare different web browsers or word processing, presentation, or drawing programs.
人们使用计算机来快速准确地完成各种任务. 学生应该能够选择合适的应用程序, 来完成他们的任务. 比如说, 如果要求学生画图, 学生能够打开和使用绘图软件来完成这个任务. 如果要求学生演示, 学生应该能够打开和使用演示软件. 此外, 在老师的指导下, 学生对同类软件的喜好进行比较和讨论. 学生应该能够比较不同的网页浏览器、文字处理程序、演示程序和绘图程序之间的区别.
Devices
设备
1.1
1A-CS-02 Use appropriate terminology in identifying and describing the function of common physical components of computing systems (hardware).
使用恰当的术语来识别和描述计算机系统常见的硬件功能
A computing system is composed of hardware and software. Hardware consists of physical components. Students should be able to identify and describe the function of external hardware, such as desktop computers, laptop computers, tablet devices, monitors, keyboards, mice, and printers.
计算机系统是由硬件和软件两部分组成. 硬件部分由实物组件组成. 学生应该能够识别和描述硬件的功能, 比如台式电脑、笔记本电脑、平板电脑、显示器、键盘、鼠标、打印机.
Hardware & Software
硬件 & 软件
7.2
1A-CS-03 Describe basic hardware and software problems using accurate terminology.
使用准确的术语来描述基本的硬件和软件问题
Problems with computing systems have different causes. Students at this level do not need to understand those causes, but they should be able to communicate a problem with accurate terminology (e.g., when an app or program is not working as expected, a device will not turn on, the sound does not work, etc.). Ideally, students would be able to use simple troubleshooting strategies, including turning a device off and on to reboot it, closing and reopening an app, turning on speakers, or plugging in headphones. These are, however, not specified in the standard, because these problems may not occur.
计算机系统的问题来自不同的原因. 这个学习阶段的学生不需要理解这些原因, 但是他们应该能够用准确的术语来表达问题 (例如, 当应用程序出现意外, 设备不能打开、没有声音等等). 在理想情况下, 学生能够使用简单的故障排除策略, 包括关闭并打开设备来重启、关闭并重新打开应用程序、打开扬声器或者插上耳机. 但是, 本标准不会详细说明各种软硬件问题, 因为这些问题可能并不会出现.
Troubleshooting
故障排除
6.2
7.2

# 网络与互联网

Networks and the Internet

序号 标准和描述 相关概念 实践
1A-NI-04 Explain what passwords are and why we use them, and use strong passwords to protect devices and information from unauthorized access.
解释什么是密码, 以及我们为什么要使用密码, 并使用"强密码"来保护设备和信息, 防止未经授权的访问
Learning to protect one's device or information from unwanted use by others is an essential first step in learning about cybersecurity. Students are not required to use multiple strong passwords. They should appropriately use and protect the passwords they are required to use.
学会保护自己的设备和信息不被他人随意使用, 是学习网络安全知识重要的第一步. 并不要求学生使用多个强密码, 而是要求他们恰当地使用和保护他们必须使用的密码.
Cybersecurit
网络安全
7.3

# 数据与分析

Data and Analysis

序号 标准和描述 相关概念 实践
1A-DA-05 Store, copy, search, retrieve, modify, and delete information using a computing device and define the information stored as data.
使用计算机设备来存储、复制、搜索、取回、修改和删除信息, 并且将存储的"信息"定义为"数据"
All information stored and processed by a computing device is referred to as data. Data can be images, text documents, audio files, software programs or apps, video files, etc. As students use software to complete tasks on a computing device, they will be manipulating data.
所有由计算机设备存储和处理的信息都称为"数据". "数据"可以是图像、文本文档、音频文件、软件程序、视频文件等等. 学生使用软件在计算机上完成任务的过程, 就是处理数据的过程.
Storage
存储
4.2
1A-DA-06 Collect and present the same data in various visual formats.
以各种可视化的形式来收集和展示数据
The collection and use of data about the world around them is a routine part of life and influences how people live. Students could collect data on the weather, such as sunny days versus rainy days, the temperature at the beginning of the school day and end of the school day, or the inches of rain over the course of a storm. Students could count the number of pieces of each color of candy in a bag of candy, such as Skittles or M&Ms. Students could create surveys of things that interest them, such as favorite foods, pets, or TV shows, and collect answers to their surveys from their peers and others. The data collected could then be organized into two or more visualizations, such as a bar graph, pie chart, or pictograph.
收集和使用他们周围世界的数据是日常生活的一部分, 这影响着人们的生活. 学生们可以收集有关天气的数据, 比如晴天和雨天、开学和放学时的气温、暴雨天气的降雨量. 学生们可以数一袋糖果中每种颜色的数量, 比如"彩虹糖"或者 "M&M 巧克力豆"的数量. 学生们可以制作他们感兴趣的事物的调查表, 比如喜欢的食物、宠物或者电视节目, 然后从同伴和其他人那里收集调查问卷的答案. 最后, 将收集到的数据组织成两个或者更多的可视化图形, 比如条形图、饼状图、象形图[1].
Collection Visualization & Transformation
数据收集 & 数据可视化 & 数据转化
7.1
4.4
1A-DA-07 Identify and describe patterns in data visualizations, such as charts or graphs, to make predictions
识别和描述可视化数据中的模式, 例如, 通过图表来进行预测
Data can be used to make inferences or predictions about the world. Students could analyze a graph or pie chart of the colors in a bag of candy or the averages for colors in multiple bags of candy, identify the patterns for which colors are most and least represented, and then make a prediction as to which colors will have most and least in a new bag of candy. Students could analyze graphs of temperatures taken at the beginning of the school day and end of the school day, identify the patterns of when temperatures rise and fall, and predict if they think the temperature will rise or fall at a particular time of the day, based on the pattern observed.
数据可以用来对世界进行推理和预测. 学生们能够通过分析一袋糖果中颜色分布的图表或者饼状图, 或者多袋糖果中各种颜色的平均值, 找出最多颜色和最少颜色的规律, 然后预测在新的一袋糖果中, 哪种颜色最多哪种颜色最少. 学生们能够分析上学和放学时的温度曲线图, 找到温度上升和下降的规律, 用来预测一天中特定时间的温度会上升还是下降.
Inference & Models
推理 & 模型
4.1

# 算法与编程

Algorithms and Programming

序号 标准和描述 相关概念 实践
1A-AP-08 Model daily processes by creating and following algorithms (sets of step-by-step instructions) to complete tasks
通过创建和遵循算法(分步骤的指令)将日常生活模型化, 从而用来完成任务
Composition is the combination of smaller tasks into more complex tasks. Students could create and follow algorithms for making simple foods, brushing their teeth, getting ready for school, participating in clean-up time.
"组合"是将较小的任务组合成更复杂的任务. 学生们能够创建类似制作简单食物、刷牙、准备上学、参与打扫卫生的算法[2].
Algorithms
算法
4.4
1A-AP-09 Model the way programs store and manipulate data by using numbers or other symbols to represent information.
通过使用数字或者其他符号表示信息, 来模拟程序存储和处理数据的过程
Information in the real world can be represented in computer programs. Students could use thumbs up/down as representations of yes/no, use arrows when writing algorithms to represent direction, or encode and decode words using numbers, pictographs, or other symbols to represent letters or words.
现实世界中的信息可以用计算机机程序来表示. 例如, 学生能够用大拇指向上和向下来表示 yes 和 no、编写算法时使用箭头来指示顺序、使用数字或者象形文字或者其他字符来编码文字信息.
Variables
变量
4.4
1A-AP-10 Develop programs with sequences and simple loops, to express ideas or address a problem.
开发程序时使用序列顺序和简单循环, 来表达思考或者解决问题
Programming is used as a tool to create products that reflect a wide range of interests. Control structures specify the order in which instructions are executed within a program.
Sequences are the order of instructions in a program. For example, if dialogue is not sequenced correctly when programming a simple animated story, the story will not make sense. If the commands to program a robot are not in the correct order, the robot will not complete the task desired.
Loops allow for the repetition of a sequence of code multiple times. For example, in a program to show the life cycle of a butterfly, a loop could be combined with move commands to allow continual but controlled movement of the character.
"编程"作为一种工具, 被用来创建各种各样的产品. "控制结构"规定了程序中指令的执行顺序.
"序列"是程序中指令的顺序. 就好像编写一个简单的动画故事, 如果角色之间的对话没有正确排序, 故事就会失去意义. 同样的, 如果控制机器人的指令顺序不正确, 机器人将无法完成所需的任务.
"循环"允许多次重复指令序列. 比如说, 在一个展示蝴蝶生命周期的程序中, 可以使用循环将移动命令组织起来, 使蝴蝶的动作连贯且可控地进行.
Control
控制
5.2
1A-AP-11 Decompose (break down) the steps needed to solve a problem into a precise sequence of instructions.
将解决问题所需的步骤分解成一个精确的指令序列
Decomposition is the act of breaking down tasks into simpler tasks. Students could break down the steps needed to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, to brush their teeth, to draw a shape, to move a character across the screen, or to solve a level of a coding app.
"分解"是将任务拆解成更简单的小任务. 学生能够分解出制作花生酱、果冻三明治、刷牙、画形状、在屏幕中移动角色、解决一个程序的关卡.
Modularity
模块化
3.2
1A-AP-12 Develop plans that describe a program’s sequence of events, goals, and expected outcomes.
制定计划, 描述一个程序的事件顺序、目标和预期结果
Creating a plan for what a program will do clarifies the steps that will be needed to create a program and can be used to check if a program is correct. Students could create a planning document, such as a story map, a storyboard, or a sequential graphic organizer, to illustrate what their program will do. Students at this stage may complete the planning process with help from their teachers.
为程序将要做的事情制定一个计划, 用来明确创建程序需要的步骤, 同时可以用来检查程序是否正确. 学生能够创建一个计划文档, 例如故事地图、故事板、顺序图, 来说明他们的程序将要做什么. 在这个学习阶段的学生, 可以在老师的帮助下完成这种计划.
Program Development
编程开发
5.1
7.2
1A-AP-13 Give attribution when using the ideas and creations of others while developing programs.
开发程序时, 使用他人的想法和创意时, 要注明出处
Using computers comes with a level of responsibility. Students should credit artifacts that were created by others, such as pictures, music, and code. Credit could be given orally, if presenting their work to the class, or in writing or orally, if sharing work on a class blog or website. Proper attribution at this stage does not require a formal citation, such as in a bibliography or works cited document.
使用计算机的同时伴随着一定程度的责任. 学生引用他人的作品的时候(例如图片、音乐和代码), 应该注明清楚引用来源. 如果是向班级同学展示, 学生可以通过口头的方式说明引用作品的来源. 如果是在班级博客或网站上分享他人的作品, 学生可以通过口头或者书面的形式说明引用作品的来源. 在这个学习阶段, 对他人作品的引用说明不需要非常正式的标注格式(比如学术论文的参考书目和著作引用).
Program Development
编程开发
7.3
1A-AP-14 Debug (identify and fix) errors in an algorithm or program that includes sequences and simple loops.
调试(识别和修复)算法或者程序中包含的指令序列错误和简单循环的错误
Algorithms or programs may not always work correctly. Students should be able to use various strategies, such as changing the sequence of the steps, following the algorithm in a step-by-step manner, or trial and error to fix problems in algorithms and programs.
算法或者程序不一定能够总是正常工作. 学生应该能够运用各种策略, 比如改变步骤的顺序、按部就班地按照算法, 或者使用试错的方法, 来解决算法和程序出现的问题
Program Development
编程开发
6.2
1A-AP-15 Using correct terminology, describe steps taken and choices made during the iterative process of program development.
使用正确的术语, 描述程序开发迭代过程中, 所采取的步骤以及做出的选择
At this stage, students should be able to talk or write about the goals and expected outcomes of the programs they create and the choices that they made when creating programs. This could be done using coding journals, discussions with a teacher, class presentations, or blogs.
在这个阶段, 学生应该能够谈论或者写出他们创建程序的目标和预期的结果, 以及他们在创建程序过程中所做的选择. 这可以用程序日志、与老师讨论、课堂演示或者博客来完成.
Program Development
编程开发
7.2

# 计算机科技的影响

Impacts of Computing

序号 标准和描述 相关概念 实践
1A-IC-16 Compare how people live and work before and after the implementation or adoption of new computing technology.
比较在实施和采用新的计算机技术前后, 人们的生活和工作情况
Computing technology has positively and negatively changed the way people live and work. In the past, if students wanted to read about a topic, they needed access to a library to find a book about it. Today, students can view and read information on the Internet about a topic or they can download e-books about it directly to a device. Such information may be available in more than one language and could be read to a student, allowing for great accessibility.
计算机技术给人们的生活和工作方式带来了积极和消极的改变. 在过去, 如果学生想要阅读某个主题, 他们需要到图书馆寻找相关的书籍. 而今天, 学生们可以在互联网上查看和阅读有关某个主题的信息, 或者他们可以直接将有关该主题的电子书下载到电子设备上. 而这些信息可能用一种以上的语言提供给学生阅读, 从而便于学生获取和理解.
Culture
文化
7
1A-IC-17 Work respectfully and responsibly with others online.
以尊重和负责任的态度, 在网上和他人合作
Online communication facilitates positive interactions, such as sharing ideas with many people, but the public and anonymous nature of online communication also allows intimidating and inappropriate behavior in the form of cyberbullying. Students could share their work on blogs or in other collaborative spaces online, taking care to avoid sharing information that is inappropriate or that could personally identify them to others. Students could provide feedback to others on their work in a kind and respectful manner and could tell an adult if others are sharing things they should not share or are treating others in an unkind or disrespectful manner on online collaborative spaces.
网上交流促进了积极的交流互动, 比如说, 和许多人分享想法. 但是, 网上交流的公开性和天然的匿名性也会让类似恐吓和不恰当行为的网络欺凌成为可能. 学生可以在博客或其他在线协作空间上分享他们的作品, 注意避免分享不恰当的信息或者能够让他人获知我们个人身份的信息. 学生可以以友好和尊重的方式, 给他人作品提供反馈. 如果他人分享了不应该分享的东西, 或者在网络协作空间中以不友好或者不尊重的方式对待他人, 可以告诉成年人(以寻求帮助).
Social Interactions
社交互动
2.1
1A-IC-18 Keep login information private, and log off of devices appropriately.
保持登录信息的保密性, 并恰当地从设备中注销账号
People use computing technology in ways that can help or hurt themselves or others. Harmful behaviors, such as sharing private information and leaving public devices logged in should be recognized and avoided.
人们使用计算机技术的方式可能帮助或者伤害自己和他人. 应该意识到并避免危险的行为, 比如分享私人信息、在公共设备上留下登录信息等等.
Safety Law & Ethics
法律 & 道德
7.3

  1. 象形图: 使用图像来替代实物. 比如, 用 🍉🍉🍉 表示"数字3" ↩︎

  2. 这里的"算法"就是分步骤的操作流程, 类似"菜谱"、"剧本"、"标准作业程序(SOP / Standard Operation Procedure)" ↩︎