# 1.2 Address the needs of diverse end users during the design process to produce artifacts with broad accessibility and usability 在设计过程中考虑不同用户的需求, 从而让产品拥有更广泛的易用性和可用性

At any level, students should recognize that users of technology have different needs and preferences and that not everyone chooses to use, or is able to use, the same technology products. For example, young learners, with teacher guidance, might compare a touchpad and a mouse to examine differences in usability. As students progress, they should consider the preferences of people who might use their products. Students should be able to evaluate the accessibility of a product to a broad group of end users, such as people with various disabilities. For example, they may notice that allowing an end user to change font sizes and colors will make an interface usable for people with low vision. At the higher grades, students should become aware of professionally accepted accessibility standards and should be able to evaluate computational artifacts for accessibility. Students should also begin to identify potential bias during the design process to maximize accessibility in product design. For example, they can test an app and recommend to its designers that it respond to verbal commands to accommodate users who are blind or have physical disabilities.

所有阶段的学生都应该认识到, 用户有不同的需求和偏好, 并不是每个人都会选择或者能够使用相同的技术产品. 比如, 我们可以让低年级的学生比较触摸板和鼠标, 来研究两者在易用性上的差别.

  1. 随着学生成长, 他们应该能够主动考虑到用户的偏好, 能够评估产品对更广泛的用户群体(比如各种残障人士)的易用性. 比如, 他们能够了解到, 如果允许用户改变字体大小和颜色, 就能够帮助视力有障碍的用户更好地使用产品.
  2. 高年级的学生应该对专业的无障碍标准[1]有所了解, 并且能够评估计算机产品的“无障碍性”[2]. 学生也应该开始在设计过程中识别出潜在的认知偏差[3], 以最大限度地提高产品设计的无障碍性. 比如, 学生测试某个应用程序, 能够向这个程序的设计者提出增加语音命令功能的建议, 基于的理由是满足盲人或者有身体残疾的用户的使用.

  1. "专业的无障碍标准"比如《Web 内容的无障碍性》 (opens new window)《Android 无障碍标准》 (opens new window) ↩︎

  2. “无障碍性/可用性”是指产品设计时, 要考虑让尽可能多的用户可以使用这个产品, 尤其是充分考虑残疾人或者老年人的使用情况, 让产品对所有人都没有使用障碍, 体现了一种关怀和平等的设计理念 ↩︎

  3. "认知偏差“是指由于大脑"简化的信息处理策略"以及依靠旧有的“经验方法”而导致的判断失误 ↩︎