# 故障排除 Troubleshooting
# Grade 2 ( 5-7岁 ) 要掌握的程度
Computing systems might not work as expected because of hardware or software problems. Clearly describing a problem is the first step toward finding a solution.
Problems with computing systems have different causes, such as hardware settings, programming errors, or faulty connections to other devices. Developmentally appropriate ways to solve problems include debugging simple programs and seeking help by clearly describing a problem (for example, “The computer won’t turn on,” “The pointer on the screen won’t move,” or “I lost the web page.”) Knowing how to diagnose or troubleshoot a problem with a computing system is not expected.
Crosscutting Concept: System Relationships Connection Within Framework: 3–5.Algorithms and Programming.Program Development
如果发现计算机系统没有按照预期工作, 那就说明硬件或者软件出了问题. 想要解决问题, 首先需要能够描述清楚问题.
计算机系统的问题有着不同原因, 包括硬件设置错误、编程代码错误、其他设备之间连接出现问题等等. 学生需要学习如何调试简单的程序错误, 学习如何通过清晰地描述问题来寻求帮助, 比如说"电脑无法打开"、"屏幕上的指针无法移动"、"网站没有加载出来".
# Grade 5 ( 8-11岁 ) 要掌握的程度
Computing systems share similarities, such as the use of power, data, and memory. Common troubleshooting strategies, such as checking that power is available, checking that physical and wireless connections are working, and clearing out the working memory by restarting programs or devices, are effective for many systems.
Although computing systems may vary, common troubleshooting strategies can be used on them, such as checking connections and power or swapping a working part in place of a potentially defective part. Rebooting a machine is commonly effective because it resets the computer. Because computing devices are composed of an interconnected system of hardware and software, troubleshooting strategies may need to address both.
Crosscutting Concepts: System Relationships; Abstraction Connection Within Framework: 3–5.Networks and the Internet.Network Communication and Organization
计算机系统之间是相通的, 都涉及到电源、数据、内存的使用. 所以常见的故障排除策略, 就包括检查电源是否可用、检查有线和无线连接是否正常、通过重启程序或者系统来清空计算机的内存. 这些排除故障的策略对许多系统都是有效的.
尽管计算机系统之间有所不同, 但是常见的故障诊断策略可以用于大多数的计算机系统, 比如检查连接、检查电源、代替可能有缺陷的零部件、重启计算机(因为它可以重置计算机的内存).
需要注意的是, 由于计算机系统是由硬件和软件共同组成的, 所以排除故障的时候需要同时解决这两方面可能发生的问题.
# Grade 8 ( 11-14岁 ) 要掌握的程度
Comprehensive troubleshooting requires knowledge of how computing devices and components work and interact. A systematic process will identify the source of a problem, whether within a device or in a larger system of connected devices.
Just as pilots use checklists to troubleshoot problems with aircraft systems, people can use a similar, structured process to troubleshoot problems with computing systems and ensure that potential solutions are not overlooked. Because a computing device may interact with interconnected devices within a system, problems may not be due to the specific computing device itself but to devices connected to it. Examples of system components that may need troubleshooting are physical and wireless connections, peripheral equipment, and network hardware. Strategies for troubleshooting a computing system and debugging a program include some problem-solving steps that are similar.
Crosscutting Concepts: System Relationships; Abstraction Connection Within Framework: 6–8.Algorithms and Programming.Algorithms
全面的故障排除需要了解计算机设备和组件之间如何工作和互动. 系统的故障排除策略, 可以帮助我们确定问题的根源.
正如我们在电影电视剧中看到的, 当飞机出现故障, 飞行员会拿出“检查清单”手册按图索骥般逐一排除故障. 我们可以借鉴飞行员的做法, 使用系统的、结构化的诊断流程, 来排除计算机故障. 同时, 这种结构化的诊断流程, 还可以确保我们更加全面地诊断, 不会漏掉不明显的故障原因.
由于计算机设备会和连接的其他设备进行交互, 所以问题的产生可能并不是因为计算机本身的原因, 而有可能是与之连接的设备造成的. 所以说, 我们也需要排除和计算机系统有线连接或者无线连接的设备、外设、网络设备.
注意, 排除计算机系统故障和调试程序bug, 两者的策略中有很多方法是非常类似的, 可以相互启发.
# Grade 12 ( 14-18岁 ) 要掌握的程度
Troubleshooting complex problems involves the use of multiple sources when researching, evaluating, and implementing potential solutions. Troubleshooting also relies on experience, such as when people recognize that a problem is similar to one they have seen before or adapt solutions that have worked in the past.
Troubleshooting information may come from external sources, such as user manuals, online technical forums, or manufacturer websites. Distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources is important. Examples of complex troubleshooting strategies include resolving connectivity problems, adjusting system configurations and settings, ensuring hardware and software compatibility, and transferring data from one device to another.
Crosscutting Concepts: Abstraction; System Relationships Connection Within Framework: 9–12.Algorithms and Programming.Program Development
- 内部资源 -- 人的经验. 比如说, 当我们意识到当前问题和我们以前见过的问题相似时, 就可以从以前有效的解决方案中获得启发
- 外部资源, 比如用户手册、在线技术论坛、制造商的网站. 所以, 区分可靠和不可靠的信息来源是很重要的