# 设备 Devices

# Grade 2 ( 5-7岁 ) 要掌握的程度

People use computing devices to perform a variety of tasks accurately and quickly. Computing devices interpret and follow the instructions they are given literally.

Computing devices can be used to do a number of things, such as play music, create documents, and send pictures. Computing devices are also very precise. For example, computers can perform multiple complex calculations much faster and with greater accuracy than people. While people may diverge from instructions given to them, computers will follow instructions exactly as they are given, even if they do not achieve the intended result.

Crosscutting Concept: Human–Computer Interaction Connections Within Framework: K–2.Algorithms and Programming.Control; K–2. Algorithms and Programming.Modularity; 3–5.Algorithms and Programming.Control


计算机会按照代码的“字面意思”[1]来解读代码, 并按照代码来操作.

计算机可以做很多事情, 比如播放音乐、创建文件、发送图片. 计算机非常精确, 可以比人更快、更准确地进行多种复杂的计算. 人类会误解命令, 但是计算机不会, 它会完完全全按照指令执行, 即使最后运行的结果不是写代码的人所想要的 ( 也就是说, 如果代码写错了, 计算机就会按照错误的代码执行, 而不会自我纠正. 计算机只会按照指令执行).

# Grade 5 ( 8-11岁 ) 要掌握的程度

Computing devices may be connected to other devices or components to extend their capabilities, such as sensing and sending information. Connections can take many forms, such as physical or wireless. Together, devices and components form a system of interdependent parts that interact for a common purpose.

Computing devices often depend on other devices or components. For example, a robot depends on a physically attached light sensor to detect changes in brightness, whereas the light sensor depends on the robot for power. A smartphone can use wirelessly connected headphones to send audio information, and the headphones are useless without a music source.

Crosscutting Concepts: Communication and Coordination; System Relationships Connection Within Framework: 3–5.Networks and the Internet.Network Communication and Organization

计算机设备可以连接其他设备, 从而拓展它的功能. 这种连接可以是物理形式的(比如使用一根数据线来连接), 也可以是无线形式的(比如通过蓝牙进行数据传输). 计算机设备和其他组件组合成为一个系统后, 就能够用来完成特定任务.

通常情况下, 计算机设备需要和其他设备组合在一起才能发挥用处. 比如说, 一个机器人需要依赖于物理连接的光传感器, 来探测环境中光线亮度的变化. 同时, 光传感器也依赖于机器人设备给它提供电源. 再比如说, 智能手机通过无线连接的方式向耳机传输音乐数据, 同时, 耳机也依赖于智能手机传输的数据来播放音乐. 如果没有智能手机, 耳机没法发挥作用.

# Grade 8 ( 11-14岁 ) 要掌握的程度

The interaction between humans and computing devices presents advantages, disadvantages, and unintended consequences. The study of human–computer interaction can improve the design of devices and extend the abilities of humans.

Accessibility is an important consideration in the design of any computing system. For example, assistive devices provide capabilities such as scanning written information and converting it to speech. The use of computing devices also has potential consequences, such as in the areas of privacy and security. For example, GPS-enabled smartphones can provide directions to a destination yet unintentionally allow a person to be tracked for malicious purposes. Also, the attention required to follow GPS directions can lead to accidents due to distracted driving.

Crosscutting Concepts: Human–Computer Interaction; Privacy and Security Connection Within Framework: 3–5.Impacts of Computing.Culture

人和计算机的互动可以改善结果也可以搞砸结果, 甚至可能带来意外的结果. 而“人机交互”学科的研究可以改善计算机的设计, 来配合和拓展人的能力.

“无障碍性/可用性”[2]是计算机设计中的一个重要考虑因素. 这种设计可以让所有人都能够无障碍地使用产品, 但是同时也带来一些问题. 比如说, 某个计算设备能够扫描纸面信息并把它转换为语音, 能够帮助我们处理信息, 因为它的无障碍设计, 它可以被任何人使用, 所以它也能被用在不好的地方, 比如用来盗取私人隐私和危害个人安全. 再比如说, 支持GPS的智能手机能够帮助人类前往目的地, 但是也能够被用于恶意跟踪. 此外, 开车时因为分心查看GPS, 也会导致交通事故.

# Grade 12 ( 14-18岁 ) 要掌握的程度

Computing devices are often integrated with other systems, including biological, mechanical, and social systems. These devices can share data with one another. The usability, dependability, security, and accessibility of these devices, and the systems they are integrated with, are important considerations in their design as they evolve.

A medical device can be embedded inside a person to monitor and regulate his or her health, a hearing aid (a type of assistive device) can filter out certain frequencies and magnify others, a monitoring device installed in a motor vehicle can track a person’s driving patterns and habits, and a facial recognition device can be integrated into a security system to identify a person. The devices embedded in everyday objects, vehicles, and buildings allow them to collect and exchange data, creating a network (e.g., Internet of Things). The creation of integrated or embedded systems is not an expectation at this level.

Crosscutting Concepts: System Relationships; Human–Computer Interaction; Privacy and Security Connections Within Framework: 9–12.Networks and the Internet.Network Communication and Organization; 9–12.Data and Analysis.Collection; 9–12. Impacts of Computing.Culture

计算机设备通常需要和其他设备组合在一起, 比如说机械设备、生物设备、社交通讯设备. 设计这样的设备时, 需要综合考虑易用性、可靠性、安全性、无障碍性.

医疗设备可以嵌入人体体内来监测和调节身体的健康; 助听器可以放大特定声音频率、过滤其他频率; 安装在机动车上的监测设备可以跟踪一个人的驾驶习惯; 面部识别设备可以集成到安全系统中来识别人; 将设备嵌入到日常物品、车辆、建筑物中, 它们通过收集和传输数据, 从而形成一个网络(物联网). 注意, 在当前学生阶段, 并不要求能够创造集成系统或者是嵌入式系统.

  1. 所谓“字面意思”是指计算机会根据代码原原本本的意思来理解, 而不会理解代码背后的想法和隐含的意义. 比如我们读书的时候, 总结归纳出的“中心思想”, 就不是“字面意思”, 而是背后隐藏的含义 ↩︎

  2. “无障碍性/可用性”是指产品设计时, 要考虑让尽可能多的用户可以使用这个产品, 尤其是充分考虑残疾人或者老年人的使用情况, 让产品对所有人都没有使用障碍, 体现了一种关怀和平等的设计理念 ↩︎